The Academy’s specificity is multidisciplinary since it is made up of three sections which group Belgian and foreign specialists in "Human sciences" (Section 1), "Natural and Medical Sciences" (Section 2) and applied sciences called "Technical Sciences" (Section 3). This leads to interaction between anthropologists, historians, sociologists, linguists, zoologists, botanists, geographers, doctors and veterinarians, civil engineers, and agronomists, who come together during working sessions aimed at organizing different congresses or discussing specific projects.

It is the only Federal and bilingual Academy in Belgium and comprises fellow and associate members who are active overseas and who come from all parts of the country. The Academy aims to be close to the regions which are the focus of its interests and incorporates a category of members known as corresponding members. These members of Belgian or foreign nationality reside overseas and represent to some extent a type of local reference which contributes to the international impact of the Institution. Their number totals a third of the members of the Academy.